Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Metab Brain Dis. 2017 Oct;32(5):1335-1355. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0077-2. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

The putative role of environmental aluminium in the development of chronic neuropathology in adults and children. How strong is the evidence and what could be the mechanisms involved?

Author information

1
Tir Na Nog, Bryn Road seaside 87, Llanelli, Wales, SA15 2LW, UK.
2
Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, England, W12 0HS, UK. basant.puri@imperial.ac.uk.
3
College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR, 72202, USA.

Abstract

The conceptualisation of autistic spectrum disorder and Alzheimer's disease has undergone something of a paradigm shift in recent years and rather than being viewed as single illnesses with a unitary pathogenesis and pathophysiology they are increasingly considered to be heterogeneous syndromes with a complex multifactorial aetiopathogenesis, involving a highly complex and diverse combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. One such environmental factor implicated as a potential cause in both syndromes is aluminium, as an element or as part of a salt, received, for example, in oral form or as an adjuvant. Such administration has the potential to induce pathology via several routes such as provoking dysfunction and/or activation of glial cells which play an indispensable role in the regulation of central nervous system homeostasis and neurodevelopment. Other routes include the generation of oxidative stress, depletion of reduced glutathione, direct and indirect reductions in mitochondrial performance and integrity, and increasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines in both the brain and peripherally. The mechanisms whereby environmental aluminium could contribute to the development of the highly specific pattern of neuropathology seen in Alzheimer's disease are described. Also detailed are several mechanisms whereby significant quantities of aluminium introduced via immunisation could produce chronic neuropathology in genetically susceptible children. Accordingly, it is recommended that the use of aluminium salts in immunisations should be discontinued and that adults should take steps to minimise their exposure to environmental aluminium.

KEYWORDS:

Aluminum; Alzheimer disease; Autism spectrum disorder; Autoimmunity; Brain; Neuropathology

PMID:
28752219
PMCID:
PMC5596046
DOI:
10.1007/s11011-017-0077-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center