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J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2017 Jul;61(1):74-77. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.16-118. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Urinary pH reflects dietary acid load in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Author information

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, 465 Kajii-cho, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5 Shimogamo Hangicho, Sakyo-ku Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-0823, Japan.


Dietary acid load is important information, however, survey of food intake needs time and skill. Therefore, it is difficult to survey food intake from all patients. It remains to be elucidated the association between dietary acid load and urinary pH in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study of 173 patients, we investigated the relationship between urinary pH and dietary acid load, assessed with potential renal acid load. Habitual food and nutrient intake was assessed by a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Urinary pH was negatively correlated with potential renal acid load (r = -0.24, p = 0.002). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that potential renal acid load (standardized regression coefficient = -0.21, p = 0.036) was associated with urinary pH after adjusting for covariates. In addition, according to the receiver operator characteristic analysis, the optimal cut-off point of urinary pH for high dietary acid load, defined as potential renal acid load over 7.0 mEq/day was 5.7 (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.63 (95% CI 0.54-0.71), sensitivity = 0.56, specificity = 0.70, p = 0.004). Urinary pH was associated with dietary acid load in patients with type 2 diabetes. We suggest that urinary pH can be a practical screening marker for dietary acid load in patients with type 2 diabetes.


diet; dietary acid load; dietary assessment; type 2 diabetes; urinalysis

Conflict of interest statement

Masahiro Yamazaki and Michiaki Fukui have received grants, honoraria and research supports from AstraZeneca plc., Astellas Pharma Inc., Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kyowa Hakko Kirin Company Ltd., Kissei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Kowa Company, Ltd., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Novo Nordisk Pharma Ltd., Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Sanofi K.K., Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. The sponsors were not involved in the study design; in the collection, analysis, interpretation of data; in the writing of this manuscript; or in the decision to submit the article for publication. The authors, their immediate families, and any research foundations with which they are affiliated have not received any financial payments or other benefits from any commercial entity related to the subject of this article. The authors declare that although they are affiliated with a department that is supported financially by pharmaceutical company, the authors received no current funding for this study and this does not alter their adherence to all the journal policies on sharing data and materials. The other authors have nothing to disclose.

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