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J Clin Periodontol. 2017 Oct;44(10):1003-1009. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12786. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Is periodontitis associated with halitosis? A systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

Author information

1
Graduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
2
Section of Periodontology, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
3
Graduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.

Abstract

AIM:

To systematically review the literature in order to investigate a potential association between periodontitis and halitosis.

METHODS:

Electronic searches were performed in four different databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Scielo. Population-based observational studies that tested the association between periodontitis and halitosis were included. Additionally, meta-analysis, meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to synthesize the evidence.

RESULTS:

A total of 1,107 articles were identified in electronic searches; out of which, five were included within the meta-analysis. Pooled estimates revealed that individuals with periodontitis presented 3.16 times higher odds (OR 3.16; 95% CI: 1.12-8.95) of having halitosis. Meta-regression and subgroups analyses showed that criteria used for halitosis and periodontitis assessment explained nearly 45% and 24% of heterogeneity between studies, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Positive association between periodontitis and halitosis was found in pooled results of population-based observational studies. However, this evidence is derived from cross-sectional studies.

KEYWORDS:

Foetor ex ore ; bad breath; meta-analysis; oral malodour; periodontal diseases

PMID:
28749582
DOI:
10.1111/jcpe.12786
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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