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J Adv Res. 2017 Sep;8(5):495-511. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2017.04.008. Epub 2017 May 10.

Gout: An old disease in new perspective - A review.

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Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.
Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt.
Rhumatologie, Lariboisière Hospital, and Université Paris Diderot Sorbonne Cité, Paris, France.


Gout is a picturesque presentation of uric acid disturbance. It is the most well understood and described type of arthritis. Its epidemiology is studied. New insights into the pathophysiology of hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis; acute and chronic allow for an even better understanding of the disease. The role of genetic predisposition is becoming more evident. The clinical picture of gout is divided into asymptomatic hyperuricemia, acute gouty arthritis, intercritical period, and chronic tophaceous gout. Diagnosis is based on laboratory and radiological features. The gold standard of diagnosis is identification of characteristic MSU crystals in the synovial fluid using polarized light microscopy. Imaging modalities include conventional radiography, ultrasonography, conventional CT, Dual-Energy CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, nuclear scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography. There is remarkable progress in the application of ultrasonography and Dual-Energy CT which is bound to influence the diagnosis, staging, follow-up, and clinical research in the field. Management of gout includes management of flares, chronic gout and prevention of flares, as well as management of comorbidities. Newer drugs in the pharmacological armamentarium are proving successful and supplement older ones. Other important points in its management include patient education, diet and life style changes, as well as cessation of hyperuricemic drugs.


Clinical picture of gout; Gout; Hyperuricemia; Imaging modalities; Management of gout; Pathogenesis

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