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J Immunol. 2017 Sep 1;199(5):1912-1922. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1700155. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

The Development of Steady-State Activation Hubs between Adult LTi ILC3s and Primed Macrophages in Small Intestine.

Author information

1
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158.
2
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143; and.
3
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158; richard.locksley@ucsf.edu.
4
UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94115.

Abstract

Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are important for intestinal health, particularly in controlling inflammation in response to epithelial dysregulation, but their role during homeostasis remains less well understood. We generated IL-22 reporter mice to assess production of this key cytokine by ILC3s in the small intestine during development and under basal conditions. Although IL-22 is produced by a variety of lymphocyte populations, constitutively high IL-22 expression was limited to lymphoid-tissue inducer (LTi) cells residing in lymph node-like structures in the gut called solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). Constitutive IL-22 expression was dependent on the microbiota and MyD88 signaling, appeared upon weaning, and was present across the spectrum of SILT, including in cryptopatches. Activated SILT LTi cells colocalized with a rare subpopulation of activated macrophages constitutively positive for IL-12/23 p40 and capable of activating neonatal LTi cells in response to TLR stimulus. Thus, weaning leads to the organization of innate immune activation hubs at SILT that mature and are continuously sustained by signals from the microbiota. This functional and anatomic organization constitutes a significant portion of the steady-state IL-23/IL-22 axis.

PMID:
28747343
PMCID:
PMC5568484
DOI:
10.4049/jimmunol.1700155
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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