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Adv Mater. 2017 Oct;29(37). doi: 10.1002/adma.201702298. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

A Double-Stimuli-Responsive Fluorescent Center for Monitoring of Food Spoilage based on Dye Covalently Modified EuMOFs: From Sensory Hydrogels to Logic Devices.

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China-Australia Joint Lab of Functional Molecules and Ordered Matters, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai, 200092, China.


Unsafe food is a huge threat to human health and the economy, and detecting food spoilage early is an ongoing and imperative need. Herein, a simple and effective strategy combining a fluorescence sensor and one-to-two logic operation is designed for monitoring biogenic amines, indicators of food spoilage. Sensors (methyl red@lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (MR@EuMOFs)) are created by covalently modifying MR into NH2 -rich EuMOFs, which have a high quantum yield (48%). A double-stimuli-responsive fluorescence center is produced via energy transfer from the ligands to Eu3+ and MR. Portable sensory hydrogels are obtained by dispersing and solidifying MR@EuMOFs in water-phase sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC-Na). The hydrogels exhibit a color transition upon "smelling" histamine (HI) vapor. This transition and shift in the MR-based emission peak are closely related to the HI concentration. Using the HI concentration as the input signal and the two fluorescence emissions as output signals, an advanced analytical device based on a one-to-two logic gate is constructed. The four output combinations, NOT (0, 1), YES (1, 0), PASS 1 (1, 1), and PASS 0 (0, 0), allow the direct analysis of HI levels, which can be used for real-time food-freshness evaluation. The novel strategy suggested here may be a new application for a molecular logic system in the sensing field.


fluorescence sensory hydrogels; food-spoilage monitoring; logic operation; methyl red covalently modified EuMOFs

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