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Trends Ecol Evol. 2017 Sep;32(9):695-713. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.06.014. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Unifying Research on Social-Ecological Resilience and Collapse.

Author information

1
ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, QLD, Australia. Electronic address: graeme.cumming@jcu.edu.au.
2
Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

Ecosystems influence human societies, leading people to manage ecosystems for human benefit. Poor environmental management can lead to reduced ecological resilience and social-ecological collapse. We review research on resilience and collapse across different systems and propose a unifying social-ecological framework based on (i) a clear definition of system identity; (ii) the use of quantitative thresholds to define collapse; (iii) relating collapse processes to system structure; and (iv) explicit comparison of alternative hypotheses and models of collapse. Analysis of 17 representative cases identified 14 mechanisms, in five classes, that explain social-ecological collapse. System structure influences the kind of collapse a system may experience. Mechanistic theories of collapse that unite structure and process can make fundamental contributions to solving global environmental problems.

KEYWORDS:

adaptive cycle; feedback; heterarchy; social–ecological system; threshold; vulnerability

PMID:
28734593
DOI:
10.1016/j.tree.2017.06.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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