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Mol Ecol. 2017 Sep;26(18):4700-4711. doi: 10.1111/mec.14240. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Genome scans on experimentally evolved populations reveal candidate regions for adaptation to plant resistance in the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

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IGEPP, INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, Université de Rennes 1, Le Rheu, France.
CBGP, INRA, IRD, CIRAD, Montpellier SupAgro, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.
IBC, Montpellier, France.
IGEPP, BIPAA, INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, France.
IRISA, GenScale, INRIA, Rennes, France.
IRISA, GenOuest COre Facility, INRIA, Rennes, France.
GeT-PlaGe, Genotoul, INRA, Castanet-Tolosan, France.
GenPhySE, Université de Toulouse, INRA, INPT, ENVT, Castanet-Tolosan, France.


Improving resistance durability involves to be able to predict the adaptation speed of pathogen populations. Identifying the genetic bases of pathogen adaptation to plant resistances is a useful step to better understand and anticipate this phenomenon. Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato crop for which a resistance QTL, GpaVvrn , has been identified in Solanum vernei. However, its durability is threatened as G. pallida populations are able to adapt to the resistance in few generations. The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic regions involved in the resistance breakdown by coupling experimental evolution and high-density genome scan. We performed a whole-genome resequencing of pools of individuals (Pool-Seq) belonging to G. pallida lineages derived from two independent populations having experimentally evolved on susceptible and resistant potato cultivars. About 1.6 million SNPs were used to perform the genome scan using a recent model testing for adaptive differentiation and association to population-specific covariables. We identified 275 outliers and 31 of them, which also showed a significant reduction in diversity in adapted lineages, were investigated for their genic environment. Some candidate genomic regions contained genes putatively encoding effectors and were enriched in SPRYSECs, known in cyst nematodes to be involved in pathogenicity and in (a)virulence. Validated candidate SNPs will provide a useful molecular tool to follow frequencies of virulence alleles in natural G. pallida populations and define efficient strategies of use of potato resistances maximizing their durability.


Pool-Seq; evolve and resequence; experimental evolution; population genomics; selection; virulence

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