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Prev Sci. 2017 Nov;18(8):964-975. doi: 10.1007/s11121-017-0822-0.

Transportability of an Evidence-Based Early Childhood Intervention in a Low-Income African Country: Results of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Study.

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Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 227 East 30th Street, 1st Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
College of Health Science, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 227 East 30th Street, 1st Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.
Department of Applied Psychology and Institute of Human Development and Social Change, New York University, New York, NY, USA.


Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are burdened by significant unmet mental health needs. Despite the successes of numerous school-based interventions for promoting child mental health, most evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are not available in SSA. This study investigated the implementation quality and effectiveness of one component of an EBI from a developed country (USA) in a SSA country (Uganda). The EBI component, Professional Development, was provided by trained Ugandan mental health professionals to Ugandan primary school teachers. It included large-group experiential training and small-group coaching to introduce and support a range of evidence-based practices (EBPs) to create nurturing and predictable classroom experiences. The study was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, the Teacher Training Implementation Model, and the RE-AIM evaluation framework. Effectiveness outcomes were studied using a cluster randomized design, in which 10 schools were randomized to intervention and wait-list control conditions. A total of 79 early childhood teachers participated. Teacher knowledge and the use of EBPs were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention (4-5 months later). A sample of 154 parents was randomly selected to report on child behavior at baseline and post-intervention. Linear mixed effect modeling was applied to examine effectiveness outcomes. Findings support the feasibility of training Ugandan mental health professionals to provide Professional Development for Ugandan teachers. Professional Development was delivered with high levels of fidelity and resulted in improved teacher EBP knowledge and the use of EBPs in the classroom, and child social competence.


Consolidated framework for implementation research; Implementation; Low-income country; Mental health; RE-AIM; Sub-Saharan Africa

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