Send to

Choose Destination
Rev Environ Health. 2017 Dec 20;32(4):303-313. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2017-0009.

Air pollution and Parkinson's disease - evidence and future directions.


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology that is thought to be caused by a complex combination of environmental and/or genetic factors. Air pollution exposure is linked to numerous adverse effects on human health, including brain inflammation and oxidative stress, processes that are believed to contribute to the development and progression of PD. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the epidemiology of air pollution and PD, including evidence of the effects of various pollutants (ozone, PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, NOx, NO2, CO, traffic air pollution, second-hand smoking) on PD risk. Based on this evidence, promising opportunities for future research are outlined, including: (1) studies of smaller particle sizes that cross the blood-brain barrier, (2) studies of the effects of air pollution on PD mortality and/or progression; (3) studies of interactions of air pollution with gene environment and other environmental factors.


Parkinson’s; air pollution; epidemiology; review; second-hand smoke

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Sheridan PubFactory
Loading ...
Support Center