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Wound Repair Regen. 2017 Aug;25(4):609-617. doi: 10.1111/wrr.12560. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Neutrophil extracellular traps coincide with a pro-coagulant status of microcirculatory endothelium in burn wounds.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, MOVE Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
2
Institute of Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), MOVE Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, MOVE Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, MOVE Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
5
Association of Dutch Burn Centers (ADBC), Beverwijk, The Netherlands.
6
Burn Center and Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Red Cross Hospital, Beverwijk, The Netherlands.
7
Cardiac Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Burn-induced tissue loss is partly related to secondary expansion of necrosis into vital dermis neighboring the initial burn injury. An important factor herein is the severe loss of perfusion of the burn wound, probably caused by microvascular damage induced by the intense local inflammatory responses as well as burn-induced hypercoagulation. We hypothesize that the formation of neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) play an important role in this. The purpose of this study was to investigate postburn intravascular thrombosis, NETs formation and the coagulant state in the microvasculature of burns in both animal models and patients. We used two in vivo burn wound models: rats and pigs. In rats, the entire wound was excised at day 14 postburn and in pigs burn wound biopsies were collected at different time points up to 60 days postburn. To confirm the data in patients, eschar from the burn wound was obtained from burn wound patients at different time points after wounding. The number of intravascular thrombi, the presence of intravascular NETs and the number of tissue factor (TF) positive blood vessels in the burn wound was determined. In rats, a significant increase in intravascular thrombi and TF expression was observed 14 days postburn, that in majority coincided with NETs. In pigs, a significant increase in intravascular thrombi and TF expression was found over time up to 60 days postburn, that in majority coincided with NETs too. Also in eschar of burn wound patients, a significant increase in intravascular thrombi was noted, that in majority coincided with NETs, already 0.5 days postburn and remained elevated up to 46 days postburn. This study shows the presence of NETosis in microcirculatory thrombosis of burn wounds and a switch in the microcirculatory endothelium toward a procoagulant phenotype.

PMID:
28727215
DOI:
10.1111/wrr.12560
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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