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Eur J Clin Invest. 2017 Aug;47(8):600-611. doi: 10.1111/eci.12781. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Author information

1
Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism/Centre for Physical Activity Research (CIM/CFAS), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Persistent inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

AIMS:

The aim of this review was to provide the reader with an update of the mechanisms whereby exercise-induced cytokines may impact cardiometabolic diseases.

RESULTS:

Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas TNF-α is a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance. In addition, TNF-α appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and heart failure. A marked increase in IL-6 and IL-10 is provoked by exercise and exerts direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF-α and by stimulating IL-1ra, thereby limiting IL-1β signalling. Moreover, muscle-derived IL-6 appears to have direct anti-inflammatory effects and serves as a mechanism to improve glucose tolerance. In addition, indirect anti-inflammatory effects of long-term exercise are mediated via improvements in body composition.

CONCLUSION:

Physical activity represents a natural, strong anti-inflammatory strategy with minor side effects and should be integrated in the management of patients with cardiometabolic diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular disease; cytokines; diabetes; exercise; heart failure; inflammation

PMID:
28722106
DOI:
10.1111/eci.12781
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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