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J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018 Jun;5(3):563-569. doi: 10.1007/s40615-017-0400-y. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Cultural Biases in Current Medical Practices with a Specific Attention to Orthopedic Surgery: a Review.

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Oss Health, York, PA, USA.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seton Hall University School of Health and Medical Sciences, South Orange, NJ, USA.
Department of Orthopaedics, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue/ A40, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Miami/Florida International University, Coral Gables, FL, USA.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Providence Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.
Department of Urology, Glickman Urologic and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Department of Orthopaedics, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue/ A40, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.


Due to the increasing diversity within the United States population, there is an ever-increasing need for increased education on cultural literacy and tolerance in medical schools and residency programs. The purpose of this article was to review how a person's culture can play a substantive role in effecting and influencing (1) medical diagnosis, (2) patient and health provider medical decision-making, (3) the patient's perception of disease, and (4) the doctor-patient relationships. Many of the decisions we make as orthopedic surgeons must account for the patient's cultural needs, as much of our work impacts patients' daily activities and function. When considering the patient's perception of disease, validated tools have been developed, such as the Patient-Specific Index, which can be used to assess the feelings, goals, and expectations of patients. Cultural competency should be a part of curricula at every level of medical education.


Cultural bias; Culture; Doctor-patient relationship; Orthopaedic


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