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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Aug 1;114(31):8313-8318. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1621504114. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Nuclear genomes distinguish cryptic species suggested by their DNA barcodes and ecology.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018; djanzen@sas.upenn.edu.
2
Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012.
3
Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9050.
4
Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9050.
5
Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018.
6
Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1.
7
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9050.

Abstract

DNA sequencing brings another dimension to exploration of biodiversity, and large-scale mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I barcoding has exposed many potential new cryptic species. Here, we add complete nuclear genome sequencing to DNA barcoding, ecological distribution, natural history, and subtleties of adult color pattern and size to show that a widespread neotropical skipper butterfly known as Udranomia kikkawai (Weeks) comprises three different species in Costa Rica. Full-length barcodes obtained from all three century-old Venezuelan syntypes of U. kikkawai show that it is a rainforest species occurring from Costa Rica to Brazil. The two new species are Udranomia sallydaleyae Burns, a dry forest denizen occurring from Costa Rica to Mexico, and Udranomia tomdaleyi Burns, which occupies the junction between the rainforest and dry forest and currently is known only from Costa Rica. Whereas the three species are cryptic, differing but slightly in appearance, their complete nuclear genomes totaling 15 million aligned positions reveal significant differences consistent with their 0.00065-Mbp (million base pair) mitochondrial barcodes and their ecological diversification. DNA barcoding of tropical insects reared by a massive inventory suggests that the presence of cryptic species is a widespread phenomenon and that further studies will substantially increase current estimates of insect species richness.

KEYWORDS:

ACG; DNA barcoding; butterflies; cryptic species; genomics

PMID:
28716927
PMCID:
PMC5547596
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1621504114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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