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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Aug 1;114(31):E6361-E6370. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1703088114. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta).

Author information

1
School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469; Brawley@maine.edu.
2
School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469.
3
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071.
4
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre and Marie Curie Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8227, Integrative Biology of Marine Models, Station Biologique de Roscoff, CS 90074, 29688 Roscoff, France.
5
Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth, PL1 2PB, United Kingdom.
6
Institut für Molekulare Physiologie, Pflanzenbiochemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55128 Mainz, Germany.
7
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN 46556.
8
HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL 35806.
9
Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598.
10
Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973.
11
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom.
12
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.
13
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.
14
Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
15
Department of Ecology, Evolution & Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901.
16
Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824.
17
Scottish Association for Marine Sciences, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban PA37 1QA, United Kingdom.
18
Natural History Museum, Department of Life Sciences, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom.
19
Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4.
20
Tau Biosciences LLC, Edmond, OK 73003.
21
Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064.
22
Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340.
23
Institut für Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.
24
Department of Molecular & Biomedical Science, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469.
25
Basic Forestry and Proteomics Research Center, HIST, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.
26
Department of Plant Science, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305.
27
Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Stamford, CT 06901.
28
Institute of Molecular Physiology and Biotechnology, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany.
29
Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858.

Abstract

Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in Porphyra are restricted to a small set of kinesins that appear to be the only universal cytoskeletal motors within the red algae. Dynein motors are absent, and most red algae, including Porphyra, lack myosin. This surprisingly minimal cytoskeleton offers a potential explanation for why red algal cells and multicellular structures are more limited in size than in most multicellular lineages. Additional discoveries further relating to the stress tolerance of bangiophytes include ancestral enzymes for sulfation of the hydrophilic galactan-rich cell wall, evidence for mannan synthesis that originated before the divergence of green and red algae, and a high capacity for nutrient uptake. Our analyses provide a comprehensive understanding of the red algae, which are both commercially important and have played a major role in the evolution of other algal groups through secondary endosymbioses.

KEYWORDS:

calcium-signaling; carbohydrate-active enzymes; cytoskeleton; stress tolerance; vitamin B12

PMID:
28716924
PMCID:
PMC5547612
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1703088114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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