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BMC Genomics. 2017 Jul 17;18(1):538. doi: 10.1186/s12864-017-3929-6.

Ethylene induces combinatorial effects of histone H3 acetylation in gene expression in Arabidopsis.

Wang L1,2,3, Zhang F1,2,3, Rode S3, Chin KK3, Ko EE3, Kim J3, Iyer VR1,2,3, Qiao H4,5,6.

Author information

1
Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, 78712, Texas, USA.
2
The Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, 78712, Texas, USA.
3
Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA.
4
Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, 78712, Texas, USA. hqiao@austin.utexas.edu.
5
The Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, 78712, Texas, USA. hqiao@austin.utexas.edu.
6
Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA. hqiao@austin.utexas.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Histone acetylation and deacetylation are essential for gene regulation and have been implicated in the regulation of plant hormone responses. Many studies have indicated the role of histone acetylation in ethylene signaling; however, few studies have investigated how ethylene signaling regulates the genomic landscape of chromatin states. Recently, we found that ethylene can specifically elevate histone H3K14 acetylation and the non-canonical histone H3K23 acetylation in etiolated seedlings and the gene activation is positively associated with the elevation of H3K14Ac and H3K23Ac in response to ethylene. To assess the role of H3K9, H3K14, and H3K23 histone modifications in the ethylene response, we examined how ethylene regulates histone acetylation and the transcriptome at global level and in ethylene regulated genes both in wild type (Col-0) and ein2-5 seedlings.

RESULTS:

Our results revealed that H3K9Ac, H3K14Ac, and H3K23Ac are preferentially enriched around the transcription start sites and are positively correlated with gene expression levels in Col-0 and ein2-5 seedlings both with and without ethylene treatment. In the absence of ethylene, no combinatorial effect of H3K9Ac, H3K14Ac, and H3K23Ac on gene expression was detected. In the presence of ethylene, however, combined enrichment of the three histone acetylation marks was associated with high gene expression levels, and this ethylene-induced change was EIN2 dependent. In addition, we found that ethylene-regulated genes are expressed at medium or high levels, and a group of ethylene regulated genes are marked by either one of H3K9Ac, H3K14Ac or H3K23Ac. In this group of genes, the levels of H3K9Ac were altered by ethylene, but in the absence of ethylene the levels of H3K9Ac and peak breadths are distinguished in up- and down- regulated genes. In the presence of ethylene, the changes in the peak breadths and levels of H3K14Ac and H3K23Ac are required for the alteration of gene expressions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study reveals that the plant hormone ethylene induces combinatorial effects of H3K9Ac, K14Ac and K23Ac histone acetylation in gene expression genome widely. Further, for a group of ethylene regulated genes, in the absence of ethylene the levels and the covered breadths of H3K9Ac are the preexist markers for distinguishing up- and down- regulated genes, the change in the peak breadths and levels of H3K14Ac and H3K23Ac are required for the alteration of gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

KEYWORDS:

Arabidopsis; Combinatorial effects; Ethylene; Histone acetylation

PMID:
28716006
PMCID:
PMC5512946
DOI:
10.1186/s12864-017-3929-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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