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PLoS One. 2017 Jul 17;12(7):e0180517. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180517. eCollection 2017.

Tales of diversity: Genomic and morphological characteristics of forty-six Arthrobacter phages.

Klyczek KK1, Bonilla JA1, Jacobs-Sera D2, Adair TL3, Afram P4, Allen KG5, Archambault ML1, Aziz RM6, Bagnasco FG3, Ball SL7, Barrett NA8, Benjamin RC6, Blasi CJ9, Borst K10, Braun MA10, Broomell H4, Brown CB5, Brynell ZS3, Bue AB1, Burke SO3, Casazza W10, Cautela JA8, Chen K10, Chimalakonda NS3, Chudoff D4, Connor JA3, Cross TS4, Curtis KN3, Dahlke JA1, Deaton BM3, Degroote SJ1, DeNigris DM8, DeRuff KC9, Dolan M5, Dunbar D4, Egan MS8, Evans DR10, Fahnestock AK3, Farooq A6, Finn G1, Fratus CR3, Gaffney BL5, Garlena RA2, Garrigan KE8, Gibbon BC3, Goedde MA5, Guerrero Bustamante CA2, Harrison M4, Hartwell MC8, Heckman EL11, Huang J10, Hughes LE6, Hyduchak KM8, Jacob AE8, Kaku M10, Karstens AW3, Kenna MA11, Khetarpal S10, King RA5, Kobokovich AL9, Kolev H10, Konde SA3, Kriese E1, Lamey ME8, Lantz CN3, Lapin JS2, Lawson TO1, Lee IY2, Lee SM3, Lee-Soety JY8, Lehmann EM1, London SC8, Lopez AJ10, Lynch KC5, Mageeney CM11, Martynyuk T8, Mathew KJ6, Mavrich TN2, McDaniel CM5, McDonald H10, McManus CJ10, Medrano JE9, Mele FE8, Menninger JE8, Miller SN3, Minick JE3, Nabua CT8, Napoli CK8, Nkangabwa M10, Oates EA5, Ott CT2, Pellerino SK1, Pinamont WJ9, Pirnie RT9, Pizzorno MC9, Plautz EJ1, Pope WH2, Pruett KM3, Rickstrew G10, Rimple PA2, Rinehart CA5, Robinson KM6, Rose VA3, Russell DA2, Schick AM3, Schlossman J10, Schneider VM2, Sells CA3, Sieker JW3, Silva MP6, Silvi MM9, Simon SE6, Staples AK5, Steed IL1, Stowe EL9, Stueven NA1, Swartz PT1, Sweet EA1, Sweetman AT8, Tender C10, Terry K4, Thomas C10, Thomas DS3, Thompson AR5, Vanderveen L10, Varma R10, Vaught HL1, Vo QD6, Vonberg ZT1, Ware VC11, Warrad YM3, Wathen KE5, Weinstein JL8, Wyper JF3, Yankauskas JR9, Zhang C10, Hatfull GF2.

Author information

Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-River Falls, River Falls, Wisconsin, United States of America.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States of America.
Department of Science, Cabrini University, Radnor, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Biology Department, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, United States of America.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, United States of America.
Center for Life Sciences Education, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
Biology Department, Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Biology Department, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States of America.


The vast bacteriophage population harbors an immense reservoir of genetic information. Almost 2000 phage genomes have been sequenced from phages infecting hosts in the phylum Actinobacteria, and analysis of these genomes reveals substantial diversity, pervasive mosaicism, and novel mechanisms for phage replication and lysogeny. Here, we describe the isolation and genomic characterization of 46 phages from environmental samples at various geographic locations in the U.S. infecting a single Arthrobacter sp. strain. These phages include representatives of all three virion morphologies, and Jasmine is the first sequenced podovirus of an actinobacterial host. The phages also span considerable sequence diversity, and can be grouped into 10 clusters according to their nucleotide diversity, and two singletons each with no close relatives. However, the clusters/singletons appear to be genomically well separated from each other, and relatively few genes are shared between clusters. Genome size varies from among the smallest of siphoviral phages (15,319 bp) to over 70 kbp, and G+C contents range from 45-68%, compared to 63.4% for the host genome. Although temperate phages are common among other actinobacterial hosts, these Arthrobacter phages are primarily lytic, and only the singleton Galaxy is likely temperate.

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