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Anat Cell Biol. 2017 Jun;50(2):115-123. doi: 10.5115/acb.2017.50.2.115. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells.

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Neural Stem Cell and Regenerative Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Shiraz School of Medicine, Shiraz Stem Cell Institute, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Department of Anatomical Sciences, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.


Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs. Our results showed that the number and size of resulting neurospheres and also the percentage of cells differentiated into neurons decreased significantly with increasing exposure duration to GSM 900-MHz radiofrequency (RF)-electromagnetic field (EMF). In contrast, exposure to GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF at different durations did not influence cell viability and apoptosis of NSCs and also their astrocytic differentiation. It is concluded that accumulating dose of GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF might have devastating effects on NSCs proliferation and neurogenesis requiring more causations in terms of using mobile devices.


Apoptosis; Cell differentiation; Cell phones; Cell proliferation; Electromagnetic fields; Microwaves; Neural stem cells; Radiofrequency

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