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Adv Funct Mater. 2016 Jun 7;26(21):3599-3611. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201505522. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces that Prevent Microbial Surface Fouling and Kill Non-Adherent Pathogens in Surrounding Media: A Controlled Release Approach.

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Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA.


Many types of slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (or 'SLIPS') can resist adhesion and colonization by microorganisms. These 'slippery' materials thus offer new approaches to prevent fouling on a range of commercial and industrial surfaces, including biomedical devices. However, while SLIPS can prevent fouling on surfaces to which they are applied, they can currently do little to prevent the proliferation of non-adherent (planktonic) organisms, stop them from colonizing other surfaces, or prevent them from engaging in other behaviors that could lead to infection and associated burdens. Here, we report an approach to the design of multi-functional SLIPS that addresses these issues and expands the potential utility of slippery surfaces in antimicrobial contexts. Our approach is based on the incorporation and controlled release of small-molecule antimicrobial agents from the porous matrices used to host infused slippery oil phases. We demonstrate that SLIPS fabricated using nanoporous polymer multilayers can prevent short- and longer-term colonization and biofilm formation by four common fungal and bacterial pathogens (Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus), and that the polymer and oil phases comprising these materials can be exploited to load and sustain the release of triclosan, a model hydrophobic and broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, into surrounding media. This approach both improves the inherent anti-fouling properties of these materials and endows them with the ability to efficiently kill planktonic pathogens. Finally, we show that this approach can be used to fabricate dual-action SLIPS on complex surfaces, including the luminal surfaces of flexible catheter tubes. This strategy has the potential to be general; we anticipate that the materials, strategies, and concepts reported here will enable new approaches to the design of slippery surfaces with improved anti-fouling properties and open the door to new applications of slippery liquid-infused materials that host or promote the release of a variety of other active agents.


Antibacterial; Antifungal; Controlled Release; Multilayers; Slippery Surfaces

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