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Psychol Med. 2018 Feb;48(3):451-462. doi: 10.1017/S0033291717001829. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

The structure of schizotypal personality traits: a cross-national study.

Author information

1
Department of Educational Sciences,University of La Rioja,Logroño, Spain.
2
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences,University of Geneva,Geneva, Switzerland.
3
Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory,CAS key Laboratory of Mental Health,Beijing,China.
4
Department of Psychology,University of Hawaii at Manoa,Honolulu, HI, USA.
5
Department of Psychology,University of British Columbia,Vancouver, BC, Canada.
6
School of Psychology, University of Wollongong,Wollongong,Australia.
7
Department of Psychology,University of Otago,Dunedin, New Zealand.
8
Department of Psychology,University of North Carolina at Greensboro,Greensboro, NC, USA.
9
Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
10
Department of Psychology,Louisiana State University,Louisiana, LA, USA.
11
Departments of Criminology,Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia, PA, USA.
12
Department of Psychiatry,Lenox Hill Hospital,New York, NY, USA.
13
Department of Psychology,Georgia State University,Atlanta, GA, USA.
14
Department of Psychology,Ohio University,Athens, OH, USA.
15
Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM),Oviedo, Spain.
16
Department of Psychology,University of La Laguna,Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.
17
Department of Psychology,University of Crete,Rethymno,Greece.
18
Genneruxi Medical Center,Cagliari,Italy.
19
Department of Psychology,Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX, USA.
20
Department of Biological and Medical Psychology,University of Bergen,Bergen,Norway.
21
Psychiatry Department,University Hospital of Monastir, Monastir,Tunisia.
22
Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
23
Centre for Clinical Research in Neuropsychiatry, Division of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
24
Centre for Clinical Research in Neuropsychiatry, School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia,Perth,Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites.

METHOD:

The overall sample consisted of 27 001 participants (37.5% males, n = 4251 drawn from the general population). The mean age was 22.12 years (s.d. = 6.28, range 16-55 years). The SPQ was used. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Multilevel CFA (ML-CFA) were used to evaluate the factor structure underlying the SPQ scores.

RESULTS:

At the SPQ item level, the nine factor and second-order factor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit. At the SPQ subscale level, three- and four-factor models displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than other CFA models. ML-CFA showed that the intraclass correlation coefficients values were lower than 0.106. The three-factor model showed adequate goodness of fit indices in multilevel analysis. The ordinal α coefficients were high, ranging from 0.73 to 0.94 across individual samples, and from 0.84 to 0.91 for the combined sample.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results are consistent with the conceptual notion that schizotypal personality is a multifaceted construct and support the validity and utility of SPQ in cross-cultural research. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of our results for diagnostic systems, psychosis models and cross-national mental health strategies.

KEYWORDS:

Factorial validity; Psychosis risk; SPQ; psychosis; schizotypal personality; schizotypy

PMID:
28712364
DOI:
10.1017/S0033291717001829

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