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J Pain Symptom Manage. 2017 Sep;54(3):361-367. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.07.011. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Validation of the Korean Version of the Breakthrough Pain Assessment Tool in Cancer Patients.

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Department of Family Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Family Medicine, SahmYook Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Family Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:
Department of Family Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.



Breakthrough cancer pain has not been properly evaluated and treated because there are relatively few available measurements. The Breakthrough Pain Assessment Tool (BAT) is currently recognized as a brief, multidimensional, and reliable measurement.


The objective of this study was to validate the Korean version of the BAT (BAT-K) in adult cancer patients.


We conducted a forward-backward translation and cross-cultural equivalence test. The psychometric properties with 120 cancer patients were assessed using factor analysis, reliability, and validity.


The Korean translation was well accepted by participants. Factor analysis revealed the presence of two underlying factors: frequency/severity and duration/medication efficacy. Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.743. Severity, distress, and disruption of normal life showed strong reliability. The intraclass correlation for the test-retest reliability was 0.782 (95% confidence interval 0.694-0.854). The BAT-K had significant correlations with the Brief Pain Inventory, Pain Management Index, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (all P values < 0.05).


The BAT-K is a valid and reliable measurement of breakthrough cancer pain in Korean cancer patients.


Breakthrough pain; neoplasms; pain measurement; translations; validation studies

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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