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Clin Nutr. 2018 Aug;37(4):1313-1322. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.05.030. Epub 2017 Jun 17.

Intakes and sources of dietary sugars and their association with metabolic and inflammatory markers.

Author information

1
MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK; Department of Health Professions, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK. Electronic address: laura.oconnor@mmu.ac.uk.
2
MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.
3
MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK; Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.
4
MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address: nita.forouhi@mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Associations of dietary sugars with metabolic and inflammatory markers may vary according to the source of the sugars. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary sugars from different sources [beverages (liquids), foods (solids), extrinsic (free) or intrinsic (non-free)] with metabolic and inflammatory markers.

METHODS:

Population-based cross-sectional study of adults in the East of England (n = 9678). Sugar intakes were estimated using food frequency questionnaires. Fasting glycated haemoglobin, glucose, insulin, and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) were measured and indices of metabolic risk were derived (homeostatic model of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR and metabolic risk z-score).

RESULTS:

In multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders including BMI and TEI, sugars from liquids were positively associated with ln-CRP [b-coefficient (95%CI), 0.14 (0.05,0.22) per 10%TEI] and metabolic risk z-score [0.13 (0.07,0.18)]. Free sugars were positively associated with ln-HOMA-IR [0.05 (0.03,0.08)] and metabolic risk z-score [0.09 (0.06,0.12)]. Sugars from solids were not associated with any outcome. Among major dietary contributors to intakes (g/d), sugars in fruit, vegetables, dairy products/egg dishes, cakes/biscuits/confectionary and squash/juice drinks were not associated, but sugar added to tea, coffee, cereal was significantly positively associated with all outcomes. Sugars in 100% juice [0.16 (0.06,0.25) per 10%TEI] and other non-alcoholic beverages [0.13 (0.03,0.23)] were positively associated with metabolic risk z-score.

CONCLUSION:

Higher intakes of sugars from non-alcoholic beverages and sugar added to tea, coffee, cereal were associated with glycaemia and inflammatory markers. Sugars from solids were not associated, irrespective of whether they were intrinsic or extrinsic. Positive associations of free sugars were largely explained by contribution of beverages to intake.

KEYWORDS:

Free sugar; Glycaemia; Inflammation; Metabolic; Sugars

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