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Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2017 Aug;27(3):371-384. doi: 10.1016/j.nic.2017.03.002.

Dual-Energy Computed Tomography: Physical Principles, Approaches to Scanning, Usage, and Implementation: Part 1.

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Department of Radiology, Segal Cancer Centre and Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Room C-212.1, 3755 Cote Ste-Catherine Road, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2, Canada. Electronic address:
GE Global Research, One Research Circle, KWC1300B, Niskayuna, NY 12309, USA.
Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.


There are increasing applications of dual-energy computed tomography (CT), a type of spectral CT, in neuroradiology and head and neck imaging. In this 2-part review, the fundamental principles underlying spectral CT scanning and the major considerations in implementing this type of scanning in clinical practice are reviewed. In the first part of this 2-part review, the physical principles underlying spectral CT scanning are reviewed, followed by an overview of the different approaches for spectral CT scanning, including a discussion of the strengths and challenges encountered with each approach.


Dual-energy CT; Dual-source CT; Fast kVp switching; Gemstone spectral imaging; Layered or sandwich detectors; Photon counting; Spectral CT or multienergy CT; Virtual monochromatic images

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