Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Endocrinol. 2017 Sep;177(3):G1-G70. doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0430.

Clinical practice guidelines for the care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: proceedings from the 2016 Cincinnati International Turner Syndrome Meeting.

Author information

Departments of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine.
Departments of Molecular Medicine.
Departments of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Department of Women's Health, University College London, London, UK.
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.
The Saban Research Institute, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Rady Children's Hospital, University of California, San Diego, California, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, Medical Genetics Unit, Mass General Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Division of Endocrinology, Nemours Children's Health System, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.
St Hubert's Island, New South Wales, Australia.
Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.
Division of Psychology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Department of Pediatrics, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Department of Pediatrics, Doernbecher Children's Hospital, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Väestöliitto Fertility Clinics, Helsinki, Finland.
Center for Rare Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Radboud University Medical Center, Amalia Children's Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.


Turner syndrome affects 25-50 per 100,000 females and can involve multiple organs through all stages of life, necessitating multidisciplinary approach to care. Previous guidelines have highlighted this, but numerous important advances have been noted recently. These advances cover all specialty fields involved in the care of girls and women with TS. This paper is based on an international effort that started with exploratory meetings in 2014 in both Europe and the USA, and culminated with a Consensus Meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA in July 2016. Prior to this meeting, five groups each addressed important areas in TS care: 1) diagnostic and genetic issues, 2) growth and development during childhood and adolescence, 3) congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease, 4) transition and adult care, and 5) other comorbidities and neurocognitive issues. These groups produced proposals for the present guidelines. Additionally, four pertinent questions were submitted for formal GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) evaluation with a separate systematic review of the literature. These four questions related to the efficacy and most optimal treatment of short stature, infertility, hypertension, and hormonal replacement therapy. The guidelines project was initiated by the European Society for Endocrinology and the Pediatric Endocrine Society, in collaboration with The European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, The Endocrine Society, European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, The American Heart Association, The Society for Endocrinology, and the European Society of Cardiology. The guideline has been formally endorsed by the European Society for Endocrinology, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the Endocrine Society. Advocacy groups appointed representatives who participated in pre-meeting discussions and in the consensus meeting.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Sheridan PubFactory
Loading ...
Support Center