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Fitoterapia. 2017 Sep;121:118-128. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2017.07.005. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

The chemical composition of the pharmacologically active Thymus species, its antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and the antiadherent effects of T. vulgaris on the bacterial colonization of the in situ pellicle.

Author information

1
Special Food Chemistry and Food Production, TU Dresden, Bergstraße 66, 01069 Dresden, Germany.
2
Clinic of Operative Dentistry, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
3
Clinic of Operative Dentistry, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany. Electronic address: christian.hannig@uniklinikum-dresden.de.
4
Special Food Chemistry and Food Production, TU Dresden, Bergstraße 66, 01069 Dresden, Germany. Electronic address: karl.speer@chemie.tu-dresden.de.

Abstract

The pharmacological active genus Thymus L. comprises over 200 species. Besides its traditional pharmacological use, thyme may reduce the risk of caries disease, however, there is very little respective literature. The pharmacological effects can be attributed to the secondary plant metabolites. The composition of the essential oil and the polyphenols is important for the evaluation of the pharmacological activity. Nevertheless, there are no studies regarding a comparative analysis of the different pharmacological thyme species. In the present study, four different pharmacology Thymus species were cultivated under comparable conditions, and the volatile compounds as well as the polyphenols were characterized. In addition, the in vitro antibacterial activity against S. mutans, one of the primary cariogenic bacterial species, as well as of the essential oil and of the polyphenols were investigated. Furthermore, the bacterial viability and its effect on the initial bacterial adhesion under oral conditions were evaluated in situ for the essential oil and the polyphenols. By GC-MS, 69 volatile compounds, and by LC-DAD-MS/MS, 46 polyphenols could be identified. The comprehensive examination of the essential oils and the polyphenols revealed that the main compounds were equal. However, the yield of the essential oil and the polyphenol content differed clearly. The essential oils of the four investigated Thymus species exhibited an antibacterial activity against S. mutans in vitro, in contrast to the polyphenols of T. vulgaris. Rinsing with polyphenol-rich infusions reduced the initial bacterial colonization while the essential oil inhibited the bacterial growth on dental enamel in situ.

KEYWORDS:

Essential oil; Initial bacterial adhesion; Lamiaceae; Polyphenols; S. mutans; Thymus

PMID:
28705510
DOI:
10.1016/j.fitote.2017.07.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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