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Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2017 Jul 6;19(4). pii: 17m02112. doi: 10.4088/PCC.17m02112.

Prevalence, Severity, and Correlates of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Symptoms Among Women in the Arabian Peninsula.

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College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, PO Box 17666, Alain, UAE.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Alain, United Arab Emirates.
Strategic Planning Division, Abu Dhabi Municipality, United Arab Emirates.
Department of Statistics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Alain, United Arab Emirates.
Department of Family Medicine, Tawam Hospital, Alain, United Arab Emirates.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Arab Gulf University, Bahrain.
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Alain, United Arab Emirates.



To study the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) symptom patterns among women in the United Arab Emirates and to measure the debilitating nature of PMDD symptoms and sociodemographic correlates.


This cross-sectional sample study used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus) and Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) to screen for presence and severity of PMDD symptoms in Arab women attending ambulatory health services in Alain city, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, for routine health care between May 2005 and September 2005.


The study participants include 508 women (76% Emiratis, 15% Omanis, and 8% other Arabs) of childbearing age. In total, 94 women (18.6%) met MINI-Plus criteria for PMDD; of these, 21 (4.1%) met PSST criteria for severe symptoms, 29 (5.7%) for moderate symptoms, and 44 (8.7%) for mild or less symptoms. One woman (0.2%) with severe symptoms and 12 women (2.4%) with moderate symptoms had negative MINI-Plus scores. Presence of PMDD symptoms was significantly associated with higher education (P = .000), single marital status (P = .001), major life stressors (P = .001), and personal/family use of psychotropic medications (P = .000/P = .006), personal/family psychological problems (P = .000/P = .001), irregular/painful menses (P = .043/P = .001), and functional impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale (P = .000). Multilogistic regression analysis showed higher education, major life stressor, personal use of psychotropic medications, personal/family psychological problem, and painful menses were independent predictors of PMDD symptoms.


PMDD symptoms were common among the Arab women in our study. The cyclically triggered mood disturbances were clustered in women with personal/familial psychological problems, perhaps linking biologic constitution to genetic predisposition for the development of PMDD symptomatology.

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