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Obes Sci Pract. 2017 Apr 3;3(2):162-170. doi: 10.1002/osp4.106. eCollection 2017 Jun.

Skipping breakfast and 5-year changes in body mass index and waist circumference in Japanese men and women.

Author information

1
Department of Social and Environmental Medicine Kanazawa Medical University Uchinada Japan.
2
Health Evaluation Center Kanazawa Medical University Hospital Uchinada Japan.
3
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Graduate School of Human Life Science Osaka City University Osaka Japan.
4
Department of Public Health Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine Sapporo Japan.
5
Department of Health Science Shiga University of Medical Science Otsu Japan.
6
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science Kanazawa Japan.
7
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Kanazawa Medical University Uchinada Japan.
8
Department of Medical Science, School of Nursing Kanazawa Medical University Uchinada Japan.
9
School of Health Sciences, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences Kanazawa University Kanazawa Japan.
10
Department of Social Welfare Toyama College of Welfare ScienceImizu Japan.
11
Department of Occupation and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.
12
Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health University of Tokyo Tokyo Japan.
13
Medical Research Institute Kanazawa Medical University Uchinada Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study investigated the relationship between frequency of skipping breakfast and annual changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC).

METHODS:

The participants were 4,430 factory employees. BMI and WC were measured repeatedly at annual medical examinations over a 5-year period. The association between frequency of skipping breakfast at the baseline examination and annual changes in anthropometric indices was evaluated using the generalized estimating equation method.

RESULTS:

The mean (standard deviation) BMI was 23.3 (3.0) kg m-2 for men and 21.9 (3.6) kg m-2 for women; and the mean WC was 82.6 (8.7) cm for men and 77.8 (9.8) cm for women. During the follow-up period, mean BMI increased by 0.2 kg m-2 for men and women, and mean WC increased by 1.1 cm for men and 1.0 cm for women. The annual change in the BMI of men who skipped breakfast four to six times per week was 0.061 kg m-2 higher, and that of those who skipped breakfast seven times per week was 0.046 kg m-2 higher, compared with those who did not skip breakfast. Annual changes in the WC of male participants who skipped breakfast seven times per week was 0.248 cm higher than that of those who did not skip breakfast. Skipping breakfast was not associated with changes in BMI or WC in women.

CONCLUSIONS:

Skipping breakfast was closely associated with annual changes in BMI and WC among men, and eating breakfast more than four times per week may prevent the excessive body weight gain associated with skipping breakfast.

KEYWORDS:

Body mass index; cohort study; skipping breakfast; waist circumference

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