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PLoS One. 2017 Jul 12;12(7):e0179368. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179368. eCollection 2017.

Smoking during pregnancy in relation to grandchild birth weight and BMI trajectories.

Ding M1,2, Yuan C1,2, Gaskins AJ1,2, Field AE2,3,4, Missmer SA3,4,5, Michels KB2,4,6, Hu F1,3,4, Zhang C7, Gillman MW8, Chavarro J1,3,4.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States of America.
2
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States of America.
3
Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.
4
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.
5
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.
6
Obstetrics and Gynecology Epidemiology Center, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, United States of America.
7
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.
8
Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim HealthCare and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Maternal smoking has been linked to lower birth weight and higher risk of childhood obesity. However, it is unknown whether grand-maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with grandchildren birth weight and body mass index (BMI) trajectories.

METHODS:

We investigated associations of smoking during pregnancy with birth weight, risks of overweight and BMI trajectories among 46,858 mother-child dyads and 6,583 grandmother-mother-child triads of three cohort studies of related individuals. Smoking during pregnancy was reported by mothers, and anthropometric data were provided by participants in each cohort.

RESULTS:

Compared to grandchildren of non-smoking women, grandchildren of women who smoked more than 14 cigarettes per day throughout pregnancy were 70 g (95% CI: 12, 129 g; P for trend = 0.01) heavier at birth, and 18% (95% CI: 4%, 34%; P for trend = 0.01) more likely to become overweight. The mean BMI of grandchildren of women who smoked during pregnancy was 0.45 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.75 kg/m2; P for trend = 0.006) higher through adolescence and young adulthood than that of grandchildren of non-smoking mothers.

CONCLUSIONS:

Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight, higher risk of overweight, and higher BMI through adolescence and young adulthood.

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