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PLoS One. 2017 Jul 10;12(7):e0181139. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181139. eCollection 2017.

Small-molecule inhibition of pyruvate phosphate dikinase targeting the nucleotide binding site.

Author information

1
Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences (CEPLAS), Institute of Biochemical Plant Physiology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40204 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Abstract

Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) is an essential enzyme of C4 photosynthesis in plants, catalyzing the ATP-driven conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). It is further used by some bacteria and unicellular protists in the reverse, ATP-forming direction. Many weed species use C4 photosynthesis in contrast to world's major crops, which are C3 plants. Hence inhibitors of PPDK may be used as C4-specific herbicides. By screening a library of 80 commercially available kinase inhibitors, we identified compounds derived from bisindolylmaleimide (bisindolylmaleimide IV, IC50 = 0.76 ± 0.13 μM) and indirubin (indirubin-3'-monoxime, IC50 = 4.2 ± 0.9 μM) that showed high inhibitory potency towards PPDK and are among the most effective PPDK inhibitors described today. Physiological studies on leaf tissues of a C4 model plant confirmed in vivo inhibition of C4-driven photosynthesis by these substances. Moreover, comparative docking studies of non-inhibitory bisindolylmaleimide derivatives suggest that the selectivity towards PPDK may be increased by addition of functional groups to the core structure.

PMID:
28700696
PMCID:
PMC5507339
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0181139
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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