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J Med Virol. 2018 Jan;90(1):76-83. doi: 10.1002/jmv.24898. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Anal HPV 16 and 18 viral load: A comparison between HIV-negative and -positive MSM and association with persistence.

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Department of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Department of Internal Medicine, Jan van Goyen Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.


Does anal HPV viral load explain the difference in anal HPV persistence between HIV-negative and -positive men who have sex with men (MSM)? MSM ≥18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in 2010-2011. Anal self-swabs were collected every 6 months and genotyped (SPF10 -PCR-DEIA-LIPA25 -system). HPV16 and HPV18 load was determined with a type specific quantitative (q)PCR, and compared between HIV-negative and -positive men using ranksum test. Persistence was defined as ≥3 positive samples for the same HPV-type. Determinants of persistent HPV16/18 infection and its association with HPV16/18 load were assessed with logistic regression. Of 777 recruited MSM, 54 and 22 HIV negative men were HPV16 and HPV18 positive at baseline, and 64 and 39 HIV-positive MSM. The geometric mean titer (GMT) of HPV16 was 19.6 (95%CI 10.1-38.0) and of HPV18 8.6 (95%CI 2.7-27.5) DNA copies/human cell. HPV16 and HPV18 load did not differ significantly between HIV-negative and -positive MSM (P = 0.7; P = 0.8, respectively). In multivariable analyses HPV16 load was an independent determinant of HPV16 persistence (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3-2.4). No difference in anal HPV viral load was found between HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. HPV 16/18 viral load is an independent determinant of type-specific persistence.


HIV; HPV; anal; men who have sex with men; persistence; viral load

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