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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Sep;26(9):1450-1458. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-0264. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Age at Menarche and Late Adolescent Adiposity Associated with Mammographic Density on Processed Digital Mammograms in 24,840 Women.

Author information

1
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California. Stacey.Alexeeff@kp.org.
2
Data Mining & Analytics, Encounter Information Operations, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.
3
Optum360, United Health Group, Las Vegas, Nevada.
4
Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
5
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.
6
Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
7
Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
8
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Canada.
9
Department of Health Research and Policy, Division of Epidemiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
10
Department of Biomedical Data Science, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Abstract

Background: High mammographic density is strongly associated with increased breast cancer risk. Some, but not all, risk factors for breast cancer are also associated with higher mammographic density.Methods: The study cohort (N = 24,840) was drawn from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health of Kaiser Permanente Northern California and included non-Hispanic white females ages 40 to 74 years with a full-field digital mammogram (FFDM). Percent density (PD) and dense area (DA) were measured by a radiological technologist using Cumulus. The association of age at menarche and late adolescent body mass index (BMI) with PD and DA were modeled using linear regression adjusted for confounders.Results: Age at menarche and late adolescent BMI were negatively correlated. Age at menarche was positively associated with PD (P value for trend <0.0001) and DA (P value for trend <0.0001) in fully adjusted models. Compared with the reference category of ages 12 to 13 years at menarche, menarche at age >16 years was associated with an increase in PD of 1.47% (95% CI, 0.69-2.25) and an increase in DA of 1.59 cm2 (95% CI, 0.48-2.70). Late adolescent BMI was inversely associated with PD (P < 0.0001) and DA (P < 0.0001) in fully adjusted models.Conclusions: Age at menarche and late adolescent BMI are both associated with Cumulus measures of mammographic density on processed FFDM images.Impact: Age at menarche and late adolescent BMI may act through different pathways. The long-term effects of age at menarche on cancer risk may be mediated through factors besides mammographic density. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1450-8. ©2017 AACR.

PMID:
28698185
PMCID:
PMC5659765
DOI:
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-17-0264
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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