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Neurotox Res. 2017 Nov;32(4):723-733. doi: 10.1007/s12640-017-9776-z. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Promotes Mitochondrial Toxicity.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Preclinical Neurobiology, Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3970 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC, 20057, USA.
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
3
Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, 20057, USA.
4
Laboratory of Preclinical Neurobiology, Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3970 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC, 20057, USA. moccheti@georgetown.edu.

Abstract

Combined antiretroviral therapies (cART) have had remarkable success in reducing morbidity and mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by loss of synapses, remain. cART may maintain an undetectable HIV RNA load but does not eliminate the expression of viral proteins such as trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope glycoprotein gp120 in the brain. These two viral proteins are known to promote synaptic simplifications by several mechanisms, including alteration of mitochondrial function and dynamics. In this review, we aim to outline the many targets and pathways used by viral proteins to alter mitochondria dynamics, which contribute to HIV-induced neurotoxicity. A better understanding of these pathways is crucial for the development of adjunct therapies for HAND.

KEYWORDS:

Ca2+; HAND; Mitochondria; Neurotoxicity; Tat; gp120

PMID:
28695547
PMCID:
PMC5711529
DOI:
10.1007/s12640-017-9776-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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