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Ann Intern Med. 2017 Aug 15;167(4):228-235. doi: 10.7326/M16-2472. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations.

Author information

1
From University of Hawai'i Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii; National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Abstract

Background:

Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced risk for death in prospective cohort studies; however, data in nonwhites are sparse.

Objective:

To examine the association of coffee consumption with risk for total and cause-specific death.

Design:

The MEC (Multiethnic Cohort), a prospective population-based cohort study established between 1993 and 1996.

Setting:

Hawaii and Los Angeles, California.

Participants:

185 855 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites aged 45 to 75 years at recruitment.

Measurements:

Outcomes were total and cause-specific mortality between 1993 and 2012. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by means of a validated food-frequency questionnaire.

Results:

58 397 participants died during 3 195 484 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up, 16.2 years). Compared with drinking no coffee, coffee consumption was associated with lower total mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders (1 cup per day: hazard ratio [HR], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.91]; 2 to 3 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.79 to 0.86]; ≥4 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.78 to 0.87]; P for trend < 0.001). Trends were similar between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Significant inverse associations were observed in 4 ethnic groups; the association in Native Hawaiians did not reach statistical significance. Inverse associations were also seen in never-smokers, younger participants (<55 years), and those who had not previously reported a chronic disease. Among examined end points, inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, cancer, respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney disease.

Limitation:

Unmeasured confounding and measurement error, although sensitivity analysis suggested that neither was likely to affect results.

Conclusion:

Higher consumption of coffee was associated with lower risk for death in African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites.

Primary Funding Source:

National Cancer Institute.

PMID:
28693036
DOI:
10.7326/M16-2472
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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