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PLoS One. 2017 Jul 10;12(7):e0174467. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174467. eCollection 2017.

Comparative cyto-histological study of needle tip aspirates and entry sites after intravitreal injection using different needle types.

Author information

Department of Ophthalmology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Eye Clinic, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg GmbH, Campus Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
Professor Sergienko Eye Clinic, Vinnycia, Ukraine.
Karl Landsteiner Institute for Retinal Research and Imaging, Vienna, Austria.
Stem Cells and Eye Research Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Clinical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.
Department of Experimental Surgery, A.A.Shalimov National Institute of Surgery and Transplantology, National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.
Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf Foundation Clinic, Vienna, Austria.
Center for Eye Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.


A comparison of the cellular content of needle tip aspirates and entry sites after transconjunctival intravitreal injection (IVI) using different needle types was performed. White outbred rats and human cadaver eyes were used for IVI by hypodermic 27 gauge (G) and 30G needles, and spinal anesthesia Pencan 27G needles. Aspiration of vitreous for quantitative morphological and cell cultivation analysis, as well as cyto-histological analysis of aspirates and entry sites were carried out. The most common cells in the aspirates from all needle types were conjunctival epithelial-, ciliary body non-pigmented epithelial- and sclerocyte-like cells and granular proteins. Crystallized vitreous specimens were present in each aspirate. The entry sites of hypodermic needles showed marked trauma in all wall layers of rat and human eyes accompanied by cellular destruction and hemorrhages. Pencan 27G needle caused less tissue trauma with partial reposition of sclerocytes. Transconjunctival IVIs with hypodermic 27G and 30G, and Pencan 27G needles result in trauma of all layers of the eyeball. The possible consequences of cellular content being cut and injected into the eye, as well as the entry site wound shape deserve future consideration and improvements.

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