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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2018 Jan;34(1):3-8. doi: 10.1089/AID.2017.0072. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Eradication of HIV from Tissue Reservoirs: Challenges for the Cure.

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1 Bioinfoexperts LLC , Thibodaux, Louisiana.
2 Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California , San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
3 The National Neurological AIDS Bank at David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles , Los Angeles, California.
4 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine and Olive View-UCLA Medical Center , Los Angeles, California.
5 The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource , San Francisco, California.
6 Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California , San Francisco, San Francisco, California.


The persistence of HIV infection, even after lengthy and successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), has precluded an effective cure. The anatomical locations and biological mechanisms through which the viral population is maintained remain unknown. Much research has focused nearly exclusively on circulating resting T cells as the predominant source of persistent HIV, a strategy with limited success in developing an effective cure strategy. In this study, we review research supporting the importance of anatomical tissues and other immune cells for HIV maintenance and expansion, including the central nervous system, lymph nodes, and macrophages. We present accumulated research that clearly demonstrates the limitations of using blood-derived cells as a proxy for tissue reservoirs and sanctuaries throughout the body. We cite recent studies that have successfully used deep-sequencing strategies to uncover the complexity of HIV infection and the ability of the virus to evolve despite undetectable plasma viral loads. Finally, we suggest new strategies and highlight the importance of tissue banks for future research.


cART; compartment; cure; evolution; persistence; replication

[Available on 2019-01-01]

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