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Vaccine. 2017 Aug 3;35(34):4330-4338. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.082. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Frequencies of peripheral immune cells in older adults following seasonal influenza vaccination with an adjuvanted vaccine.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine II, Centre for Medical Research, University of Tübingen, 72072 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: David.Goldeck@uni-tuebingen.de.
2
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Center for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
3
Department of Internal Medicine II, Centre for Medical Research, University of Tübingen, 72072 Tübingen, Germany; Department of Immunology, Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research (IMIBIC), Reina Sofía University Hospital, University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain.
4
Department of Internal Medicine II, Centre for Medical Research, University of Tübingen, 72072 Tübingen, Germany.
5
Department of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Athens, Greece.
6
Department of Internal Medicine II, Centre for Medical Research, University of Tübingen, 72072 Tübingen, Germany; Health Sciences North Research Institute, Sudbury, ON, Canada.

Abstract

As age increases, immune responses and consequently protection following vaccination to seasonal influenza is commonly believed to decrease. Possible drivers of this immune dysfunction include immunosenescence, repeated exposure to the same seasonal influenza antigens, and prior infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV). Here, to determine immune parameters distinguishing vaccine humoral responders (R) from non-responders (NR) following vaccination, we surveyed broad peripheral blood "cellular immune correlates" of older adults vaccinated with Fluad® (an adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine containing strains H1N1, H3N2 and B). Phenotyping included αβ-T-cells, γδ-T-cells, B-cells and myeloid cells. The frequencies of most of these lymphocyte phenotypes were found to be similar in R and NR, although perhaps counterintuitively, one of the few differences seen between the two groups was higher frequencies of regulatory T-cells in R. These differences were more prominent for responses to the vaccine strains H1N1 and H3N2 than to the B strain, and in CMV-seropositive than CMV-seronegative elderly. Further, frequencies of early-differentiated CD4+ T-cells tended to be higher and frequencies of memory CD4+ T-cells tended to be lower in R than NR. There were also differences in B-cells, with higher frequencies in R compared to NR. To the best of our knowledge, these results are the first to report such differences in elderly people responding or failing to respond to adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccination.

KEYWORDS:

Adjuvant; Cytomegalovirus; Fluad®; Influenza; Vaccine; regulatory T-cells

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