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Gene. 2017 Sep 5;627:473-476. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2017.07.006. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

A phylogenetic view of the Out of Asia/Eurasia and Out of Africa hypotheses in the light of recent molecular and palaeontological finds.

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Department of Brain Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:


The substantiality of the Out of Africa hypothesis was addressed in the light of recent genomic analysis of extant humans (Homo sapiens sapiens, Hss) and progress in Neanderthal palaeontology. The examination lent no support to the commonly assumed Out of Africa scenario but favoured instead a Eurasian divergence between Neanderthals and Hss (the Askur/Embla hypothesis) and an Out of Asia/Eurasia hypothesis according to which all other parts of the world were colonized by Hss migrations from Asia. The examination suggested furthermore that the ancestors of extant KhoeSan and Mbuti composed the first Hss dispersal(s) into Africa and that the ancestors of Yoruba made up a later wave into the same continent. The conclusions constitute a change in paradigm for the study of human evolution.


Askur/Embla hypothesis; Genomics; Hss, Homo sapiens sapiens; Human dispersal; Human evolution; LCA, last common ancestor; Neanderthals; Out of Africa hypothesis, OOAH; Out of Asia/Eurasia hypothesis, OOEH; Palaeontology

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