Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2017 Jul 7;12(7):e0180232. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180232. eCollection 2017.

Characteristics and outcomes of older HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: A retrospective observation cohort study.

Author information

The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France.
Lighthouse Trust, Lilongwe, Malawi.
International Training and Education Center for Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.



To estimate patients enrolling on antiretroviral therapy (ART) over time; describe trends in baseline characteristics; and compare immunological response, loss to follow-up (LTFU), and mortality by three age groups (25-39, 40-49 and ≥50 years).


A retrospective observation cohort study.


This study used routine ART data from two public clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. All HIV-infected individuals, except pregnant or breastfeeding women, aged ≥ 25 years at ART initiation between 2006 and 2015 were included. Poisson regression models estimated risk of mortality, stratified by age groups.


Of 37,378 ART patients, 3,406 were ≥ 50 years old. Patients aged ≥ 50 years initiated ART with more advanced WHO clinical stage and lower CD4 cell count than their younger counterparts. Older patients had a significantly slower immunological response to ART in the first 18 months on ART compared to patients aged 25-39 years (p = 0.04). Overall mortality rates were 2.3 (95% confidence Interval (CI) 2.2-2.4), 2.9 (95% CI 2.7-3.2) and 4.6 (95% CI 4.2-5.1) per 100 person-years in patients aged 25-39 years, 40-49 years and 50 years and older, respectively. Overall LTFU rates were 6.3 (95% CI 6.1-6.5), 4.5 (95% CI 4.2-4.7), and 5.6 (95% CI 5.1-6.1) per 100 person years among increasing age cohorts. The proportion of patients aged ≥ 50 years and newly enrolling into ART care remained stable at 9% while the proportion of active ART patients aged ≥50 years increased from 10% in 2006 to 15% in 2015.


Older people had slower immunological response and higher mortality. Malawi appears to be undergoing a demographic shift in people living with HIV. Increased consideration of long-term ART-related problems, drug-drug interactions and age-related non-communicable diseases is warranted.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center