Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Toxins (Basel). 2017 Jul 7;9(7). pii: E215. doi: 10.3390/toxins9070215.

Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models.

Author information

1
Discipline of Zoology, School of Natural Sciences, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway H91 W5P7, Ireland. tom.doyle@nuigalway.ie.
2
Discipline of Zoology, School of Natural Sciences, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway H91 W5P7, Ireland. J.HEADLAM1@nuigalway.ie.
3
Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. wilcoxcl@hawaii.edu.
4
Discipline of Zoology, School of Natural Sciences, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway H91 W5P7, Ireland. eoin.macloughlin@nuigalway.ie.
5
Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. ayanagih@hawaii.edu.
6
Békésy Laboratory of Neurobiology, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. ayanagih@hawaii.edu.

Abstract

Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) stings cause severe pain and can lead to dangerous systemic effects, including Irukandji-like syndrome. As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific support. In this study, we sought to evaluate potential first aid care protocols using previously described envenomation models that allow for direct measurements of venom activity. We found that seawater rinsing, the most commonly recommended method of tentacle removal for this species, induced significant increases in venom delivery, while rinsing with vinegar or Sting No More® Spray did not. Post-sting temperature treatments affected sting severity, with 40 min of hot-pack treatment reducing lysis of sheep's blood (in agar plates), a direct representation of venom load, by over 90%. Ice pack treatment had no effect on sting severity. These results indicate that sting management protocols for Cyanea need to be revised immediately to discontinue rinsing with seawater and include the use of heat treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Scyphozoa; cnidarian envenomations; first aid; hair jelly

PMID:
28686221
PMCID:
PMC5535162
DOI:
10.3390/toxins9070215
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

A.A.Y. declares a potential conflict of interest as the inventor for the United States Patent and Trademark Office applications PCT/US2012/000095 and PCT/US2015/037974. A.A.Y. is also the founder and principal of Alatalab Solutions, Limited Liability Corporation manufacturer of Sting No More products. Management of this disclosed potential conflict of interest was achieved under an approved University of Hawaii Conflict of Interest (COI) plan. All aspects of the COI plan were followed while conducting this research study and in the independent analysis of data. C.L.W., J.L.H., E.M. and T.K.D. declare no conflicts of interest. The funding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center