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Nutrients. 2017 Jul 7;9(7). pii: E718. doi: 10.3390/nu9070718.

Protective Role for Antioxidants in Acute Kidney Disease.

Author information

1
Redox Biology Group, Discipline of Pathology, Charles Perkins Centre, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. jo-dennis@optusnet.com.au.
2
Redox Biology Group, Discipline of Pathology, Charles Perkins Centre, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. paul.witting@sydney.edu.au.

Abstract

Acute kidney injury causes significant morbidity and mortality in the community and clinic. Various pathologies, including renal and cardiovascular disease, traumatic injury/rhabdomyolysis, sepsis, and nephrotoxicity, that cause acute kidney injury (AKI), induce general or regional decreases in renal blood flow. The ensuing renal hypoxia and ischemia promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical anions, peroxides, and hydroxyl radicals, that can oxidatively damage biomolecules and membranes, and affect organelle function and induce renal tubule cell injury, inflammation, and vascular dysfunction. Acute kidney injury is associated with increased oxidative damage, and various endogenous and synthetic antioxidants that mitigate source and derived oxidants are beneficial in cell-based and animal studies. However, the benefit of synthetic antioxidant supplementation in human acute kidney injury and renal disease remains to be realized. The endogenous low-molecular weight, non-proteinaceous antioxidant, ascorbate (vitamin C), is a promising therapeutic in human renal injury in critical illness and nephrotoxicity. Ascorbate may exert significant protection by reducing reactive oxygen species and renal oxidative damage via its antioxidant activity, and/or by its non-antioxidant functions in maintaining hydroxylase and monooxygenase enzymes, and endothelium and vascular function. Ascorbate supplementation may be particularly important in renal injury patients with low vitamin C status.

KEYWORDS:

antioxidant; endothelium; hypoxia; ischemia; oxidant; renal injury; vitamin C

PMID:
28686196
PMCID:
PMC5537833
DOI:
10.3390/nu9070718
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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