Send to

Choose Destination
Neuromodulation. 2018 Feb;21(2):149-159. doi: 10.1111/ner.12628. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

A Long-Term BCI Study With ECoG Recordings in Freely Moving Rats.

Author information

University of Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, CLINATEC, MINATEC Campus, Grenoble, 38000, France.



Brain Computer Interface (BCI) studies are performed in an increasing number of applications. Questions are raised about electrodes, data processing and effectors. Experiments are needed to solve these issues.


To develop a simple BCI set-up to easier studies for improving the mathematical tools to process the ECoG to control an effector.


We designed a simple BCI using transcranial electrodes (17 screws, three mechanically linked to create a common reference, 14 used as recording electrodes) to record Electro-Cortico-Graphic (ECoG) neuronal activities in rodents. The data processing is based on an online self-paced non-supervised (asynchronous) BCI paradigm. N-way partial least squares algorithm together with Continuous Wavelet Transformation of ECoG recordings detect signatures related to motor activities. Signature detection in freely moving rats may activate external effectors during a behavioral task, which involved pushing a lever to obtain a reward.


After routine training, we showed that peak brain activity preceding a lever push (LP) to obtain food reward was located mostly in the cerebellar cortex with a higher correlation coefficient, suggesting a strong postural component and also in the occipital cerebral cortex. Analysis of brain activities provided a stable signature in the high gamma band (∼180Hz) occurring within 1500 msec before the lever push approximately around -400 msec to -500 msec. Detection of the signature from a single cerebellar cortical electrode triggers the effector with high efficiency (68% Offline and 30% Online) and rare false positives per minute in sessions about 30 minutes and up to one hour (∼2 online and offline).


In summary, our results are original as compared to the rest of the literature, which involves rarely rodents, a simple BCI set-up has been developed in rats, the data show for the first time long-term, up to one year, unsupervised online control of an effector.


Asynchronous; ElectroCorticoGraphic recordings; brain computer interface; freely moving animals; neuroprosthetic

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center