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Science. 2017 Jul 7;357(6346):93-97. doi: 10.1126/science.aan0032.

Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication.

Author information

1
School of Plant Sciences and Food Security, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
2
NRGene Ltd., Ness Ziona, Israel.
3
Helmholtz Zentrum M√ľnchen, Plant Genome and Systems Biology, Neuherberg, Germany.
4
University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA.
5
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), OT Gatersleben, Stadt Seeland, Germany. adistel@tauex.tau.ac.il.
6
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
7
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
8
Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
9
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.
10
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), OT Gatersleben, Stadt Seeland, Germany.
11
Global Institute for Food Security, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
12
Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Bet Dagan, Israel.
13
Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.
14
University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
15
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service, Fargo, ND, USA.
16
University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA.
17
The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
18
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
19
University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
20
Council of Agricultural Research and Economics-Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Fiorenzuola d'Arda, Italy.
21
CNR-National Research Council, Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology, Milano, Italy.
22
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Shiva, Israel.
23
National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan. adistel@tauex.tau.ac.il.
24
National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan.
25
The Institute for Cereal Crops Improvement, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
26
School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

Abstract

Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent more than 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge about the genome of its allo-tetraploid progenitor, wild emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). We report a 10.1-gigabase assembly of the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, as well as analyses of gene content, genome architecture, and genetic diversity. With this fully assembled polyploid wheat genome, we identified the causal mutations in Brittle Rachis 1 (TtBtr1) genes controlling shattering, a key domestication trait. A study of genomic diversity among wild and domesticated accessions revealed genomic regions bearing the signature of selection under domestication. This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties.

PMID:
28684525
DOI:
10.1126/science.aan0032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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