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Biol Aujourdhui. 2017;211(1):39-49. doi: 10.1051/jbio/2017010. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

La génétique de l’hôte influe sur les écosystèmes microbiens par l’intermédiaire du système immunitaire de l’hôte.

[Article in French]

Author information

1
Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses (CIMI-Paris UMRS1135), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Paris, France.
2
Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses (CIMI-Paris UMRS1135), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Paris, France - Département d'Immunologie, AP-HP, Groupement Hospitalier Pitié - Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Abstract

Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms occurred as a response to environmental challenges, in particular competition for nutrients, climatic change, physical and chemical stressors and pathogens. However organism fitness depends on both the efficiency of its defences and its capacities for benefiting from its symbiotic organisms. Indeed microbes not only engender pathogenies, but enable efficient uptake of host non-self biodegradable nutriments. Furthermore, microbes play an important role in the development of host immunity. We shall review here the associations between some specific genes of the host, microbiota and the immune system. Recent genome-wide association studies disclose that symbiosis between host and microbiota results from a stringent genetic co-evolution. On the other hand, a microbe subset isolated from murine and human microbiotes has been identified on the basis of its interaction with both the host genetics and immunity. Remarkably, microbes which have two such connections are taxonomically related. The best performing bacterial genuses in these two perspectives are Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Akkermansia. We conclude that future therapies targeting microbiota within the framework of chronic inflammatory diseases must consider together host immune and genetic characters associated with microbiota homeostasis.

PMID:
28682226
DOI:
10.1051/jbio/2017010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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