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Pediatr Cardiol. 2017 Oct;38(7):1365-1369. doi: 10.1007/s00246-017-1671-0. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Lower Hospital Charges and Societal Costs for Catheter Device Closure of Atrial Septal Defects.

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College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology), University of Arizona, 1501N. Campbell Ave, PO Box 245073, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.


Atrial septal defects (ASD) are among the most common congenital heart defects. As more ASDs are corrected by interventional catheterization instead of surgery, it is critical to understand the associated clinical and societal costs. The goal of this study was to use a national U.S. database to describe hospital charges and societal costs for surgical and catheter-based (ASD) closure. Retrospective review of hospital discharge data from the Kids' Inpatient Database from January 2010 to December 2012. The database was queried for admissions for <21 years old with ICD-9 procedure codes for surgical (35.51 or 35.61) or catheter (35.52) ASD closure; those with other cardiac conditions and/or additional cardiac procedures were excluded. Age, length of stay (LOS), and hospital charges and lost parental wages (societal costs) were compared between groups using t test or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate. Four hundred and eighty-six surgical and 305 catheter ASD closures were identified. LOS, hospital charges, and total societal costs were higher in surgical ASD compared to catheter ASD admissions (3.6 vs. 1.3 days, p < 0.001, $87,465 vs. $64,109, p < 0.001, and $90,000 vs. $64,966, p < 0.001, respectively). In this review of a large national inpatient database, we found that hospital and societal costs for surgical ASD closure are significantly higher than catheter ASD closure in the United States in the current era. Factors that likely contribute to this include longer LOS and longer post-operative recovery. Using "real-world" data, this study demonstrates a substantial cost advantage for catheter ASD closure compared to surgical.


ASD/PDA/PFO; Closure; Congenital heart disease; Economics/cost-effectiveness; Pediatric intervention; Surgery

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