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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:8060949. doi: 10.1155/2017/8060949. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Mitochondrial Nucleoid: Shield and Switch of the Mitochondrial Genome.

Author information

1
Department of Integrated Biomedical Science, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan, Republic of Korea.
2
National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Mitochondria preserve very complex and distinctively unique machinery to maintain and express the content of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Similar to chromosomes, mtDNA is packaged into discrete mtDNA-protein complexes referred to as a nucleoid. In addition to its role as a mtDNA shield, over 50 nucleoid-associated proteins play roles in mtDNA maintenance and gene expression through either temporary or permanent association with mtDNA or other nucleoid-associated proteins. The number of mtDNA(s) contained within a single nucleoid is a fundamental question but remains a somewhat controversial issue. Disturbance in nucleoid components and mutations in mtDNA were identified as significant in various diseases, including carcinogenesis. Significant interest in the nucleoid structure and its regulation has been stimulated in relation to mitochondrial diseases, which encompass diseases in multicellular organisms and are associated with accumulation of numerous mutations in mtDNA. In this review, mitochondrial nucleoid structure, nucleoid-associated proteins, and their regulatory roles in mitochondrial metabolism are briefly addressed to provide an overview of the emerging research field involving mitochondrial biology.

PMID:
28680532
PMCID:
PMC5478868
DOI:
10.1155/2017/8060949
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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