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Biosensors (Basel). 2017 Jul 4;7(3). pii: E25. doi: 10.3390/bios7030025.

Detection of Lipid and Amphiphilic Biomarkers for Disease Diagnostics.

Author information

1
Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. jzk@lanl.gov.
2
Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. dvu@lanl.gov.
3
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA. hmendez@unm.edu.
4
The New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA. hmendez@unm.edu.
5
Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. sjakhar@lanl.gov.
6
Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. harshini@lanl.gov.

Abstract

Rapid diagnosis is crucial to effectively treating any disease. Biological markers, or biomarkers, have been widely used to diagnose a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. The detection of biomarkers in patient samples can also provide valuable information regarding progression and prognosis. Interestingly, many such biomarkers are composed of lipids, and are amphiphilic in biochemistry, which leads them to be often sequestered by host carriers. Such sequestration enhances the difficulty of developing sensitive and accurate sensors for these targets. Many of the physiologically relevant molecules involved in pathogenesis and disease are indeed amphiphilic. This chemical property is likely essential for their biological function, but also makes them challenging to detect and quantify in vitro. In order to understand pathogenesis and disease progression while developing effective diagnostics, it is important to account for the biochemistry of lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers when creating novel techniques for the quantitative measurement of these targets. Here, we review techniques and methods used to detect lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers associated with disease, as well as their feasibility for use as diagnostic targets, highlighting the significance of their biochemical properties in the design and execution of laboratory and diagnostic strategies. The biochemistry of biological molecules is clearly relevant to their physiological function, and calling out the need for consideration of this feature in their study, and use as vaccine, diagnostic and therapeutic targets is the overarching motivation for this review.

KEYWORDS:

amphiphile; biomarkers; biosensors; diagnostics; lipid

PMID:
28677660
PMCID:
PMC5618031
DOI:
10.3390/bios7030025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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