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Ann Pharmacother. 2017 Nov;51(11):970-975. doi: 10.1177/1060028017719715. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Meropenem for the Treatment of Nosocomial Pneumonia in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients by Monte Carlo Simulation.

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1 Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.
2 Department of Emergency Internal Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.



Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is a frequent complication among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, there are currently no pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data to guide meropenem dosing in these patients.


To investigate the PK/PD properties of meropenem in these patients and whether the usual dosing regimens of meropenem (2-hour infusion, 1 g, every 8 hours) was suitable.


A total of 11 patients with a diagnosis of ICH complicated with NP were selected in the emergency internal medicine and treated with a 1-g/2-hours extended infusion model. The plasma concentrations of meropenem were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. PK parameters were estimated by plasma concentration versus time profile using WinNonlin software. The probability of target attainments (PTAs) of meropenem at different minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) based on percentage time that concentrations were above the minimum inhibitory concentration (%T>MIC) value were performed by Monte Carlo simulation.


The volume of distribution and total body clearance of meropenem were 55.55 L/kg and 22.89 L/h, respectively. Using 40%T>MIC, PTA was >90% at MICs ≤4 µg/mL. Using 80% or 100%T>MIC, PTA was >90% only at MICs ≤1 µg/mL.


The PK/PD profile of dosing regimens tested will assist in selecting the appropriate meropenem regimens for these patients. At a target of 40%T>MIC, the usual dosing regimens can provide good coverage for pathogens with MICs of ≤4 µg/mL. However, when a higher target (80% or 100%) is desired for difficult-to-treat infections, larger doses, prolonged infusions, shorter intervals, and/or combination therapy may be required.


Monte Carlo simulation; intracerebral hemorrhage; meropenem; nosocomial pneumonia; pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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