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Nat Commun. 2017 Jul 4;8(1):56. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00080-y.

Yeast Cip1 is activated by environmental stress to inhibit Cdk1-G1 cyclins via Mcm1 and Msn2/4.

Author information

Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10051, Taiwan.
Department and Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 11490, Taiwan.
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, 20224, Taiwan.
Cell Signaling Research Group, Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, 08003, Spain.
Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10051, Taiwan.


Upon environmental changes, proliferating cells delay cell cycle to prevent further damage accumulation. Yeast Cip1 is a Cdk1 and Cln2-associated protein. However, the function and regulation of Cip1 are still poorly understood. Here we report that Cip1 expression is co-regulated by the cell-cycle-mediated factor Mcm1 and the stress-mediated factors Msn2/4. Overexpression of Cip1 arrests cell cycle through inhibition of Cdk1-G1 cyclin complexes at G1 stage and the stress-activated protein kinase-dependent Cip1 T65, T69, and T73 phosphorylation may strengthen the Cip1and Cdk1-G1 cyclin interaction. Cip1 accumulation mainly targets Cdk1-Cln3 complex to prevent Whi5 phosphorylation and inhibit early G1 progression. Under osmotic stress, Cip1 expression triggers transient G1 delay which plays a functionally redundant role with another hyperosmolar activated CKI, Sic1. These findings indicate that Cip1 functions similarly to mammalian p21 as a stress-induced CDK inhibitor to decelerate cell cycle through G1 cyclins to cope with environmental stresses.A G1 cell cycle regulatory kinase Cip1 has been identified in budding yeast but how this is regulated is unclear. Here the authors identify cell cycle (Mcm1) and stress-mediated (Msn 2/4) transcription factors as regulating Cip1, causing stress induced CDK inhibition and delay in cell cycle progression.

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