Send to

Choose Destination
J Optom. 2018 Apr - Jun;11(2):103-112. doi: 10.1016/j.optom.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Assessment of neuro-optometric rehabilitation using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in adults with acquired brain injury.

Author information

New York University's School of Medicine's Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York University's Langone Medical Center's RUSK Rehabilitation, 240 East 38th Street, Room 15-32, New York, NY 10016, United States. Electronic address:
State University of New York, State College of Optometry, 33 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036, United States.



This pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in the adult, acquired brain injury (ABI) population to quantify clinically the effects of controlled, laboratory-performed, oculomotor-based vision therapy/vision rehabilitation.


Nine adult subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and five with stroke were assessed before and after an eight-week, computer-based, versional oculomotor (fixation, saccades, pursuit, and simulated reading) training program (9.6h total). The protocol incorporated a cross-over, interventional design with and without the addition of auditory feedback regarding two-dimensional eye position. The clinical outcome measure was the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test score (ratio, errors) taken before, midway, and immediately following training.


For the DEM ratio parameter, improvements were found in 80-89% of the subjects. For the DEM error parameter, improvements were found in 100% of the subjects. Incorporation of the auditory feedback component revealed a trend toward enhanced performance. The findings were similar for both DEM parameters, as well as for incorporation of the auditory feedback, in both diagnostic groups.


The results of the present study demonstrated considerable improvements in the DEM test scores following the oculomotor-based training, thus reflecting more time-optimal and accurate saccadic tracking after the training. The DEM test should be considered as another clinical test of global saccadic tracking performance in the ABI population.


Accidente cerebro-vascular (ACV)/ictus; Cerebral vascular accident (CVA)/stroke; Daño cerebral traumático (DCT); Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test; Eye movements; Movimientos oculares; Neuro-optometric rehabilitation; Prueba DEM (Developmental Eye Movement); Rehabilitación neuro-optométrica; Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center