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Benef Microbes. 2017 Aug 24;8(4):645-656. doi: 10.3920/BM2016.0157. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the maturation and differentiation of dendritic cells in rotavirus-infected mice.

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1 College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Key Laboratory of animal production and product quality safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, 2888 Xincheng street, Changchun, Jilin Province 130118, China P.R.
2 Shandong Baolai-Leelai Bio-Tech Co., Ltd., Taian, Shandong province, China P.R.


Rotavirus-related diarrhoea is considered one of the most important diseases in field animal production. In addition to the classic vaccine strategy, a number of studies have utilised probiotics, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), to prevent rotavirus-induced diarrhoea. Although it has been partially revealed that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the LGG-mediated protection against rotavirus infection, the details of the underlying immunologic mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, three-to-four-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and orally administered phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS plus rotavirus or LGG plus rotavirus, respectively. The differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) were then determined by FACS, the expression levels of TLR-3 and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) were evaluated using real time PCR, and the production of inflammatory cytokines in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were determined by ELISA. The results demonstrated that rotavirus infection significantly increased the percentage of CD11c+CD11b+CD8a- DCs and decreased the percentage of CD11c+CD11b-CD8a+ DCs in MLNs. By contrast, the presence of LGG significantly decreased the percentage of CD11c+CD11b+CD8a- DCs and increased the percentage of CD11c+CD11b-CD8a+ DCs, which indicates that the differentiation of DCs is involved in the protective effects of LGG. Rotavirus infection also resulted in the increased expression of surface markers such as CD40, CD80 and MHC-II in DCs, and the administration of LGG significantly increased the expression level further. The mRNA levels of TLR-3 and NF-κB in the intestine and MLNs were also significantly increased in the presence of rotavirus, which was further increased in the presence of LGG. The production of inflammatory cytokines was also determined, and the results showed that rotavirus caused the increased production of interleukin (IL)-12 and tumour necrosis factor alpha; this effect was further enhanced by LGG. Meanwhile, although rotavirus infection led to the increased production of IL-6 and IL-10, the presence of LGG significantly decreased the mRNA levels of these cytokines. By contrast, rotavirus infection resulted in the decreased production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and the administration of LGG significantly increased the levels of IFN-γ. Taken together, the protective effects of LGG were partially due to the modulation of the differentiation and maturation of DCs, the increased production of TLR-3 and NF-κB, and the modulation of inflammatory cytokines.


Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; TLR-3; dendritic cells; inflammatory cytokines; rotavirus

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